BMW M135i

There are a lot of people who would want to have a concept car from the great selection of BMW cars available in the industry of powerful cars.

The M135i concept has come as a response to the need of the hatchback car which is an European popular car.

 

The BMW M135i has a great part of its features similar to the series M belonging to BMW. The different characteristics that may be seen in the M135i are the air-intakes which are quite large and an innovative appearance of rear end. The M135 is manufactured in a very ingenious way which is characteristic to the M series. Something you can see mainly in the M series is the characteristic markings on the sides of the vehicle which give this car a distinct resemblance. If you read a car review about other similar BMW models, you will see that the brand always pays attention to detail, and this for example is one of the characteristics that can make people love or hate a certain brand. Reading a car review can save you a lot of trouble, from spending too much money on options you don’t need to telling you precisely which cars you shouldn’t be interested in.

The M135i has a gasoline powered engine which is something different since the M series BMW’s usually have diesel powered engines. So, this car has not the twin-turbo 3.0 of the old 1-series M coupe, but the new-generation single turbo. If you wonder about the power of this car, you should know it is nearly as powerful at 320 hp. Moreover, with some M modifications to improve response and sound it is indeed a great car. The steering and suspension are a little bit different and they change the rack and the geometry at the front also stiffening all the springs and dampers. In plus the BMW M135i has special brakes and unique tires differently sized front to rear.

For giving this car, the brand has followed different modifications in the car concept. The mechanical revisions which have been done have given this car better brakes. Even though these changes have been quite good ones, there are still some things which haven’t been made clear by BMW. The M135i has a turbo with six cylinders which are capable of giving 320 hp, which is quite different of the use of the twin turbo engine N45, although the producer announced this car will have a 1-6 engine of 3 liters.

The 2012 BMW M135i features some classical Ferric Grey colored exterior mirror caps, with BMW Individual High Gloss Shadow Line in the car window side. Moreover, the wheels which are made of 18 inch M light alloy give this car a fashion double spoke design. And alongside the light alloy car wheels, the large M sports braking system as braking power makes it a very safe and secure car.

BMW M135i Pictures Gallery

2013 Infiniti G37

If you are among the people who like and want to have cars with powerful engines, then you should take a look at one of the most powerful engine car which is the 2013 Infiniti G37. If you are a fan of top brands which give countless car models in order to satisfy every need, you should definitely know that while some branded cars are renowned for the best engines in the world or safety features, Infiniti G37 tops the list of the best sports sedans and has received a lot of amazing car reviews.

 

This car is available as sedan, a coupe or hardtop convertible. It has a sporty look while offering a comfortable ride and a luxurious interior. What is new for 2013 is a high-performance IPL convertible. The car has excellent steering, dynamics and can satisfy even the needs of a big family delivering driver satisfaction and interior comfort. The 2013 Infiniti G37 is a carryover from 2012 with the addition of the IPL convertible model. This characteristic makes it resemble certain types of race cars, and perhaps this is what its creators were going for as well. More and more street car models have come to borrow from the performance and attributes of race cars, and this is because there is an increasing demand for high speed, maneuverability and dynamics. Men love all types of race cars, but only the professionals can drive them; so if you’re passionate about this kind of competition, the closest way to get to it is by purchasing a highly performing car.

This sports sedan is known for its 3.7 liter V6 engine, available with between 325 and 330 horsepower depending on the car model. This car’ powerful engine comes with a seven-speed automatic or a six-speed manual transmission. The Infiniti G37 comes in Premium, Sport, Premier and IPL depending on the customer’s possibilities and needs. The new IPL (Infiniti Performance Line) coupe features an upgraded V6 engine with 348 or 343 horsepower as well as a distinctive suspension and styling. The G series has an aggressive but subtle design with abounding curves. The standard safety features include six airbags, traction control and four-wheel anti-lock disc brakes. If you want more of this car, then you should know you can have an intelligent cruise control system that matches the speed of the car ahead and an upgraded audio system with Bose sound. These features are optional for those who want to enjoy more of the driving performance of this sports sedan.

Even if the 2013 Infiniti G37 is a new improved model of the older version in this class, its coupe-like profile looks quite well. Inside, the car mirrors the German sports sedan and in the front seats, this car feels like a real sport coupe. The upgraded features have contributed greatly to the reasons why this vehicle is the topic of numerous positive car reviews. The G37 is the only engine available with manual or automatic transmission and with rear-wheel drive or all-wheel drive. For 2013, Infiniti has dropped the G25 models and some editions, leaving only three models, which are: G37 Sedan Journey, G37 Sedan Sport 6MT and G37x Sedan AWD.

2013 Infiniti G37 Pictures Gallery

How a car engine works

The cars are efficient machines we all need in our daily lives. If you are wondering about how a car engine works, then you should read the following information which will give you a complete image of the mechanism that makes every car speed up and stop whenever you want. We are sure that you will find this information very useful and the next time you read a car review you will have no problems understanding the engine’s performance features.

 

The car engine is the heart of any car, and we can also refer to a car engine as the internal combustion engine. You should know there are different types of combustion engines, including the diesel engine, petrol engine, rotary engine and two-stroke engine.

The combustion engine is designed to make use of controlled explosions on smaller scale to generate the power needed by the car to run or take different operations. The same engine is used in motorcycles and other machines and devices which use motors for running.

It is a known fact that a car engine uses four stroke combustion cycles, and these are intake, compression, combustion and exhaust. While running a car, these four steps are repeated in a quick succession to generate the necessary power for operation of a car. Obviously, these four steps take part inside the car engine.

The internal combustion engine runs on the basic premise of injecting a tiny amount of high energy fuel in a small enclosed space, igniting it and creating a massive amount of energy, in a form of an expanding gas.

So, if you have not opened the hood of your own car yet and wondered how a car engine works, here you might understand the way an internal combustion engine functions in making your car take the required actions. At a first glance, your car engine might look as a big confusion of metal, tubes and wires, but this perfect mechanism is the one which enables your car to function the way it should be. Although a lot of men are passionate about cars few actually know how an engine works. Automobile constructors always try to improve the engine in order to increase a car’s performance. When reading a car review we are not always able to understand how the upgrades improve the performance. We hope that the information featured in this articles will not only help you understand how a car works but it will also help you compare different cars.

If we should go further into detail about how a car engine works, then we must say that at the beginning of the cycle, the piston starts at the top, once the intake valve opens, the piston moves down, letting the engine take in a cylinder full of air into which is injected a drop of petrol. The piston then moves back up to compress the air with the drop of petrol, the compression will make the explosion which is about to occur all the more powerful. When the piston reaches its limit, the spark plug emits a spark which ignites the petrol, causing an explosion thus driving the piston back down. When the piston reaches its bottom limit, the exhaust valve opens and the exhaust leaves the cylinder. And this cycle is repeated over and over again. The cylinder is a very important part for the internal combustion engine. Usually, cars have four, six or eight cylinders.

2012 Audi A5

If you are looking for a car which incorporates both great style and power, then the 2012 Audi A5 should be the solution. This car will offer to its customers a combination of power, all wheel drive and fuel efficiency. Audi has come with an A5 lineup which includes three styles to choose from, each with their own set of standard features as well as optional features.

 

If you should take into consideration the A5 performance, you should know Audi is a known brand for adding innovative characteristics to its cars. This car will allow you to notice an innovative wheel drive feel with the patented Audi drive. You will also feel the power of this car which is provided by a motor of 2.0 TFSI ensuring 211 hp for an even more powerful car than the ones this brand has produced. A thing you will find only in Audi cars is the Audi Valve-lift system. This system makes the air stay optimally leveled using its pressure in order to make this happen. This feature adds to the power of the car though also lowering the fuel usage. And when it comes to its performance, the 2012 Audi A5 can achieve a top track speed of 130 mph and an all-wheel-drive A5 coupe is capable of going from 0 to 60 mph in about 6.3 seconds.

While the standard car model offers standard characteristics in the motor power, the type of car you want to order can carry additional features depending on your requests regarding the high-technology system and comfortable characteristics. Keep in mind that this Audi model is in the top 5 of the most expensive cars to insure and the more additional features you buy the higher the online car insurance quotes are going to be. However, a person does not buy the A5 on account of the insurance quotes. This car is meant for passionate drivers who understand the value of a performance car. Still, you should make sure that the online car insurance quotes cover all your additional features. This vehicle deserves to be properly protected in all possible scenarios.

If you would like the have the base car of Audi, then you will get a car with characteristics which refer to details regarding the tire and wheels that most standard model cars belonging to Audi have. The standard audio system of A5 is powered by an over 150 watts system and it can play your favorite songs no matter if you have a CD or favorite song list on your telephone. Moreover, the great sound features makes of this car’s audio system a top system for a base car model.

And if we should count the 2012 Audi A5 exterior we have even more reasons to want this car. The exterior design is surprisingly light thanks to its unitized steel structure. Moreover, the alloy of integrated aluminum and magnesium components offer this car a light and durable body that makes it an excellent choice when handling this vehicle.

2012 Audi A5 Pictures Gallery

Alternator Problems

Taking care of an automobile is a complicated task, and without some basic mechanical knowledge it’s impossible. Nevertheless, it is possible to know when there’s something wrong under the hood just by following some warning signs. For example, the alternator is a very important piece for the well-being of your car. In order to spot alternator problems on time, there are some signs you can look out for.

 

Although the alternator is a relatively simple component, it plays a crucial role in any vehicle’s operation, turning mechanical energy into electricity through induction. Because it is connected to other vehicle systems, any alternator problems can affect its functionality. The first sign of alternator problems should be indicated in most cars by a light in the dashboard dedicated to signaling trouble on this specific component. This light is either shaped like a battery or it says “ALT” or “GEN”, meaning alternator or generator. Though most who see this light immediately think there are battery problems, this is not the case. The light is connected to computer systems which monitor the voltage output of the alternator; if this goes above or below a pre-set limit then the light comes on.

The second sign that can indicate alternator problems is a dimming of the lights. Since the alternator supplies a car’s electrical needs, it’s normal they start malfunctioning or altogether stop when the alternator is damaged. Electrical problems may include dimming or extremely powerful headlights and dash lights, or stopping of the speedometers and tachometers. Heated seats or electrically-powered windows may also experience trouble.

The third sign indicating alternator problems consists of three clues that a driver can put together in order to ascertain what is going on: sight, sound and smell. First, a quick visual check of the belt for cracking, excessive wear and other issues can indicate a future problem. Secondly, sounds resembling a “growling” or “whining” noise can be heard shortly before an alternator gives out. Thirdly, the scent of burning rubber or hot wires can indicate alternator failure, so drivers should also pay attention to that.

The fourth sign is not technically an alternator problem, but it can be connected to it so it’s best to take it into account. The sign is a dead battery, and it can mean a faulty alternator because it is also responsible for the starting system. When an alternator begins to spoil the battery starts helping out, but this means it can quickly discharge.

The fifth and last sign are broken or loose connections. If you’ve checked the car for all other signs and nothing is wrong, then the alternator is producing electricity but it isn’t getting where it’s supposed to. In this case you should check for problems with the wires, cables and other connections at either end. Just following these few simple tips anyone can make sure their car is always in a great condition.

Aston Martin Virage

If you are among the Aston Martin fans, then you are probably looking for the most seductive of all sports cars on the market. And since the car industry has developed a lot lately, the world of Aston Martin looks very different as well from what it used to be a long time ago. With the 2012 Aston Martin Virage, the British car manufacturer gets in line with the current range of cars.

You should know the Virage was Aston Martin’s replacement for the decades-old V8 models. The new generation of Virage was introduced at the 2011 Geneva Motor Show to fit into the middle of Aston Martin’s current lineup. Aston Martin wasn’t always among the best cars in the world, but the brand does have a special something; as for this model, it is obvious immediately that the sleek and futuristic design will be one of the most appreciated features of this automobile. However, what’s under the hood shouldn’t be ignored, and you have to give it to those British engineers for maintaining high quality standards and at least striving to make the best cars in the world no matter what.

The new Virage is a great car for those who want an every day all round sports car. The price though places this car among the luxurious automobiles that not too many can afford having. The Virage is somewhere between the Aston Martin DB9 and the leading performance DBS within the current range in both pricing and power output. The power source of this car is given by a 6.0 litre V12 engine, which produces 490bhp, which is exactly 20bhp below that of DB9 and 20bhp more than its biggest brother which is the DBS.

Regarding its look, we can say that the Aston Martin Virage looks similar to that of the DB9, but features a wider mouthed grill, newer looking skirted sills, a much cleaner front bumper and a single lower grille to move away from the DB9’s three-piece grille styling.

The appearance of this new car manufactured by Aston Martin is vastly improved over the DB9 look and it also brings a more elegant feel. This car brings a true feel of a GT2+2 or a two seats option. Inside the design is fresh and more modern and you can find newly styled and upgraded leather seats, which add to this can comfortable feel. Overall we can say this car represents a very attractive car featuring a high performance system.

The 2012 Aston Martin Virage features a standard Touchtronic II six-speed automatic and an Adaptive Damping System which provides optimum road holding with up to five different stiffness settings within normal mode and a further five stiffer settings within sport mode. The car is capable of reaching 100 km/h in less than 5 seconds. The new Virage launched at the Geneva Motor Show became available in two versions, which are Coupe and Volante (convertible). And the truth is that this sports car is a great choice for those who love stylish and powerful cars.

Aston Martin Virage Pictures Gallery

Transmission Slipping

If you deal with a transmission slipping, then you surely have a transmission which hesitates before engaging the right gear for a given set of driving circumstances. Usually, the hesitation may last for about a second, but it is felt by the driver. And with the time pass, it will surely worsen. If you have to deal with something like this you should have your car checked up by a professional mechanic, or the problem will lead to some more expensive repairs or worse.

 

Gears that start to slip represent a symptom for both automatic and manual transmissions. Of course, this symptom will express itself in a slightly different way when it comes about different types of transmission. While some short bursts of extreme RPM will be present when the transmission attempt to shift through the gears, in manual transmission the clutch will be required to be let out slower for catching the gears.

Basically, slipping is a condition where the engine is revving but full power is not reaching to the wheels.

Transmission slipping can be caused by a variety of transmission malfunctions and you should not ignore any of them. Among other causes, we should mention the malfunctioning of the torque converter. The torque converter is responsible for sending torque to the car transmission. It allows the engine to continue running even when the car stops. But there are parts inside the torque converter that can wear out or break. Usually replacing this component will solve your problem. Another cause can be the low fluid level which can lead to transmission malfunction, as the transmission needs a constant supply of fluid. The fluid lubricates the moving parts like clutches or gears and prevents unnecessary friction. The fluid level helps the car to find the appropriate gears quickly. But, the problem is that the fluid can leak from a number of seals and gaskets and if this thing happens, you may experience slippage. The most common way to prevent low fluid levels from causing a slip in your gears is to check their level every two or three weeks. If the fluid leaks somewhere in your transmission then you should find a mechanic as soon as possible. And, finally, we can also talk about worn bands and gears when dealing with transmission slipping. Gears come in several combinations and they reflect driving conditions. But, gears and bands can wear out over time. When this thing happens, your transmission may have difficulty in finding the right gear.

Torque Converter Clutch

Any torque converter consists of four major components among which the lock up converter plays a very important role. Although the lock up clutch is not part of the engine, it can make the car feel like the engine has a problem. It has many purposes and it is part of the transmission. At highway speeds this clutch can be applied and it will ensure a direct mechanical connection between the crankshaft and the input shaft, which will result in one hundred per cent efficiency between the engine and the transmission.

 

Even though the torque converter is engaged it never completely engages the way a manual transmission car clutch will. It will always slip a little which is a lack in its efficiency. Usually, to increase power and mainly fuel mileage, a lock up converter is added to an automatic transmission. This device is an electronic clutch that will engage the engine and will help the engine to completely engage without slipping. The lock up clutch is created to engage only in the top gear when the car is cruising, but not accelerating. It will disengage when the accelerator is pressed hard enough. A common problem for the lock up clutch is that in time it will wear out, especially if the car was operated in overdrive or top gear.

Usually, if the lock up clutch is bad one of three things will happen. The first thing is that the car will tend to rev up and down as it engages or disengages. In this case the car will not be able to keep the torque converter clutch locked up. The second thing that may occur is for the converter clutch to engage randomly in gears that it shouldn’t even engage in usually. And the third thing that may happen is to have a converter clutch which doesn’t want to disengage at all. As you slow down, the car won’t downshift and if you try to accelerate the car will have some difficulties in moving quickly. In some extreme cases the lockup converter will try to keep the vehicle moving when you try to slow down and stop or it will stall out and die.

Some people think that such problems come from the car’s engine because it causes the car to stall. And in some cases the check engine light will not show an error for the torque converter clutch. Most lockup converters are controlled by wires that plug into the transmission. So, it is possible on some models to simply disconnect this plug. But this is not a problem and it will only cause you to lose a little gas mileage.

 

Transmission Problems

There are some issues which need to be taken care of properly when using our cars in cold weather. It is a known fact that in cold temperatures, a car may consume more fuel to start up the engine in order to be fully operational as in warm conditions. In cold weather, a car engine is much more difficult to start because the oil used in it becomes thicker and requires more energy to get to its normal state. The engine parts which are lubricated by the cold thicker fuel require significant energy in order to be activated. So, it seems quite simple to have transmission problems in cold weather. Usually, a higher energy requirement means that the engine will take more fuel to get its parts moving. The engine will definitely end up consuming a large amount of fuel to get the car warmed properly.

 

But, experiencing a shifting in weather conditions is not a sign that the transmission has broken or that it has an immediate problem, it is an early sign that there will be a problem at some point. What you should know further on is that there is a difference between the manual and automatic cars and the symptoms are different as well.

Usually, manual cars will have trouble getting into the correct gear as a consequence of the cold weather. Not to mention they are more difficult to start when the weather gets colder. You should not ignore these symptoms even if they disappear once the weather begins to warm up as they might be an early wake-up call to take your car to a mechanic and check it up of some transmission problems.

The automatic transmission is the most complex mechanism and if you notice some warning signs that something is not working the way it should be in cold weather, the most important thing to do is to take your car to a specialist and have a transmission repair. What you should do when trying to use your car in a cold winter day is to check the engine light. Today’s transmissions are computer controlled and a check engine light can be the indicator of some transmission problems, even if you don’t feel any symptom yet. The modern automobile computers are extremely sensitive and can detect a transmission slip or malfunction that usually is imperceptible to the driver. But, the light will always come on to tell you that something is wrong somewhere. From here is quite easy to see that something is wrong and get your car to be checked out. Among some symptoms that you can notice, we should mention a shaking sensation, burning smell, delayed drive or leakage.

2012 Audi A6

   The 2012 Audi A6 is a new model of the executive car made by the German automaker Audi AG. This is the seventh generation of A6, and it’s available in saloon and wagon configurations.  The 2012 Audi A6 is a front-wheel drive, but there are Torsen-based four-wheel drives as well, marketed by Audi as their Quattro system.

 

Nevertheless, some of those who eagerly waited the unveiling of the new 2012 Audi A6 were disappointed, as this model resembles the previous model a lot which, among others, was smaller and less expensive. Though the 2012 Audi A6 is an altogether new car, it didn’t make the same design leap that other previous models did, so there was little to surprise us when we saw it, other than a more pronounced shoulder line, protruding door handles, and finessed shapes for the grille, headlights and taillights. Yet this slight disappointment may disappear once you’re inside the car.

Since Audi has accustomed us with the best interior designs and functionality, it’s no wonder the interior of the 2012 Audi A6 is so impressive. Integrating much of the interior from the A7, the 2012 Audi A6 also offers the possibility of a layered-oak trim, which may be more appealing to business, executive types. As per usual, the interior of the 2012 Audi A6 is perfect and we found no fault in it. The instrument layout is dominated by a large screen between the speedometer and the tach and it displays all sorts of information, like the interesting feed from the thermal night-vision system, or the head-up display that you can opt for if you want your information immediately available.

The 2012 Audi A6 is equipped with a supercharged 3.0 liter V6 that produces the amazing 300 horsepower from 5250 RPM to its 6500 RPM redline. Unlike previous V6 engines, the one you’ll find in the 2012 Audi A6 is more efficient, thanks to an electric power-steering pump and new and improved oil pump. With its seven geared dual clutch transmission, the 2012 Audi A6 is a vehicle that runs smoothly and elegantly without letting you feel the amount of torque it uses to speed up.

Those interested in protecting the environment and in love with Audi will be happy to hear the manufacturer is also preparing the A6 hybrid that will be launched at the end of 2012 or the beginning of the next year. The hybrid will be supplied with a 1.3 kWh lithium-ion battery with an electric-only range of 3 km at a constant 60 km/h drive and a top speed of 100 km/h.

2012 Audi A6 Pictures Gallery

Clutch Plate

   A clutch plate is the most important part of the transmission system, because without it the car would not start and it would not stop either. It functions entirely on the concept of friction, which is what actually drives a car. Without a clutch plate, the car engine would have to be connected directly to the car’s wheels, which would result in the sudden spinning of the wheels when the engine would start. In fact, manual transmission cars have more than one clutch, and so do automatic cars. Moreover, many things we use daily are fit with clutches, among them being some cordless drills, chain saws and even yo-yos.

 

The clutch plate is useful in devices that have two rotating shafts. In this type of devices one shaft is normally driven by a motor or pulley and the other shaft drives another device. The clutch connects the two shafts so they can be locked together and spin at the same speed, or be decoupled and spin at different speeds. The car needs a clutch plate because its engine spins all the time whereas its wheels don’t. To be able to stop the car without killing the engine you need something to disconnect the wheels from the engine, and that is what the clutch allows you to do.

A clutch plate is part of a series of discs inside the transmission; it is round and has a friction sensitive surface that permits it to grip. It is positioned right next to the fly wheel, which immediately starts to spin when the engine is turned on. If this happens in a manual transmission, the clutch has to be disengaged, so it can spin without engaging the car wheels. Therefore, the clutch works because of the friction between a clutch plate and a flywheel. The flywheel is connected to the engine and the clutch plate to the transmission, so together they make the car drive.

A clutch plate is designed to handle different levels of force and apply different ranges of friction depending on its design and materials. When the clutch pedal is pressed, a cable or hydraulic piston pushes the release fork which in turn presses the throw-out bearing against the middle of the diaphragm spring. As this is pushed in, a series of pins near the outside of the spring makes the spring pull the pressure plate away from the clutch disc. As a result, the clutch is released from the spinning engine. This is how a clutch plate works and what its uses are in human endeavor.

McLaren F1

   The McLaren F1 is a sports car designed and manufactured by McLaren Automotive which on 31 March 1998 set the record for the fastest road car in the world reaching a top speed of 372 km/h or 231 mph. This car has many specific and unique designs and technologies, like the fact that it is lighter and has a more streamlined structure than many modern sports cars, despite having one seat more. The McLaren F1 is fitted with a very powerful 6.1 L V12 engine and the modified race car edition won various races. Only 106 cars were built between 1992 and 1998 when the production ended, but it still remains one of the event-cars in the history of automobile production.

 

With a kerb weight of approximately 1,062 kilograms, the McLaren F1 is a two-door, three-seat coupe with a rear mid-engine and rear-wheel drive. McLaren F1’s concept was designed by British chief engineer Gordon Murray who had two very important things in mind: low weight and high power, which he achieved with expensive high-tech materials such as carbon fiber, gold, titanium, magnesium and Kevlar. The result of many years of hard work and unabated hope, the McLaren F1 was first shown to the public on 28 May 1992 at The Sporting Club in Monaco. Back then the car was considered unfit for the road because it lacked indicators in the front, so McLaren had to make the necessary changes.

An interesting fact in the history of the McLaren F1 is the story of how its first safety levels were proved. It all happened in Namibia in April 1993 when a test driver wearing just shorts and a t-shirt hit a rock and rolled over in the car several times. Luckily, the driver had no injuries, so the McLaren F1 got some good publicity out of this event. Another curious piece of trivia is related to the use of gold in the manufacturing of the F1. For each of the cars that were made, 16 grams of gold were necessary because engineer Gordon Murray needed a highly-efficient heat-reflector to insulate the engine compartment.

The engine of the McLaren F1 was, after many searches and quests, manufactured by BMW who created a 6.1 L, 618 hp and 266 kg engine that was 14% more powerful and 16 kg heavier than Gordon Murray’s original specifications. Another aspect that Murray was very interested in was making the car ad aerodynamic as possible. This was achieved through a number of tricks and methods, including not fitting it with wings that could slow it down. The car features active aerodynamics, such as an air intake at the top of the vehicle which directs high pressure air to the engine with a low pressure exit point at the top of the rear.

 

How Diesel Engines Work

Today, a diesel engine has proved to be extremely efficient and cost effective. If you wonder how diesel engines work, then you may find you answer in reading a few interesting information about the diesel engines.

You should know that after discovering oil to be an easily available resource for powering the cars, a fuel we now name diesel fuel was processed to power diesel engines. We know a diesel fuel is priced somehow higher than gas but what you should know about the diesel fuel is that it has a higher energy density. This means a more power can be withdrawn from diesel comparing it with the same amount of gasoline. Moreover, the diesel fuel is heavier and oilier compared with gasoline.

 

Returning to how diesel engines work, you should know that practically diesel and gasoline engines are rather similar. They are both internal combustion motors designed to change the chemical energy available in diesel or gasoline into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy moves the pistons up and down inside the piston chambers. All the pistons are connected to a crankshaft and the motion which is a linear up-and-down motion creates the rotary motion needed to rotate the prop on your used trawler.

The fist step in creating the rotary motion is given by the air which is drawn into the cylinder. The air is then compressed by the movement of piston and the fuel is injected as a vapor just before the piston contracts the top of the cylinder. The compression creates a raise in the air temperature, which makes the diesel fuel to combust. In the end, the waste gases are blown from the piston chamber into the exhaust system.

Very important in injecting fuel into the firing cylinder of diesel engines is the diesel injection pump. What you should know is that the spark plugs are not used to ignite the fuel, which is a different characteristic from the gasoline-powered engines. They rely entirely on the compressing of the diesel in the piston chamber to result in combustion. So, the diesel injection pumps are very important and must be built tough to create the compression value needed for the engine’s operation. Basically, the way how diesel engines work refer to the way the engines just pull in the air and start the combustion cycle. Diesel engines produce less power though than their turbocharged relatives.

A diesel engine requires stronger internal components such as the pistons and the crankshaft to withstand the continuous hammering from the diesel engine operating cycle. Thus, the design of a diesel engine is made to take hundreds of hours of constant use.

Dual Clutch Transmission

   Most cars come fitted with either of two basic transmission types: manuals, where the driver is required to change gears by depressing a clutch pedal and use a stick shift, and automatics, which do all the work by using clutches, a torque converter and sets of planetary gears. But there is also a third technology that uses the best of both previous mechanisms, and that’s the dual clutch transmission, or as it’s sometimes called, the semi-automatic transmission, or the automated manual transmission.

 

The dual clutch transmission is quite common in the world of racecars, in variants like the sequential manual gearbox. Yet in the world of production vehicles it is a new technology, defined by a very specific design known as the dual-clutch or direct-shift gearbox, which might just become the transmission of the future. In order to understand how a dual clutch transmission works, one needs to know that it offers the function of two manual gearboxes in one. With a normal manual transmission, a synchronizer matches the gears before they are engaged in order to prevent grinding and there is no continuous flow of power from the engine. With a dual clutch transmission however, the driver uses two clutches, but no clutch pedal. These clutches are controlled by sophisticated electronics and hydraulics like with an automatic transmission, only here the clutches operate independently. The first clutch controls the odd gears while the other has control over the even gears. This way, there is no power flow interruption from the engine to the transmission, making for a smoother transition from one gear to another.

In order for this to be possible, cars with dual clutch transmission have the outer shaft hollowed out to make room for an inner shaft which is embedded inside. Therefore, the outer shaft feeds the second and fourth gears, whereas the inner shaft does so for the first, third and fifth gears. This explains the technology behind the constant power delivery and the possibility to change gears faster than the blink of an eye.

Unlike regular cars, those fitted with dual clutch transmission don’t require torque converters, but use wet multi-plate clutches. A “wet” clutch is one that bathes the clutch components in a lubricating fluid that serves to reduce friction and limit the production of heat. Nevertheless, some manufacturers are presently working on a technology that uses dry clutches, like those used for manual transmissions. The dual clutch transmission may not be yet available in many cars, but it’s rapidly spreading all over, creating the possibility that soon most, if not all, cars be fitted this way soon.

 

Ferrari Enzo

   The Ferrari Enzo is a 12-cylinder mid-engine berlinetta named after the company’s founder, Enzo Ferrari. It was first produced in 2002 with the use of Formula One technologies, like the carbon-fiber body, the F1-style electrohydraulic shift transmission and ceramic composite disc brakes. Only the Ferrari Enzo was also built with technologies that were not allowed on the F1, like active aerodynamics and traction control.

 

As long as the production for Ferrari Enzo continued, from 2002 until 2004, only 400 cars were made, all following the design of Japanese engineer Ken Okuyama. When the new Ferrari was announced at the 2002 Paris Motor Show, all 349 cars that were to be manufactured had already been bought in advance by eager drivers. However, after many requests, Ferrari decided to build 50 more. An interesting piece of history about the Ferrari Enzo is that the model which was supposed to be revealed at the Paris Motor Show was first flown to California to appear in the movie Charlie’s Angels: Full Throttle, in a scene where Demi Moore is the driver. The 400th and last Ferrari Enzo that was built was donated to the Vatican, which in turn auctioned it at Sotheby’s for $1.1 million, which is about the same sum the Enzo always goes for at any auction.

The Ferrari Enzo has a semi-automatic transmission that uses paddles to control an automated shifting and clutch mechanism, fitted with LED lights on the steering wheel to tell the driver when to change gears. It also uses 19-inch wheels and 15-inch Brembo disc brakes; it has four wheel independent suspensions with push-rod actuated shock-absorbers that can be set from the cabin. As for its performance, the Ferrari Enzo can accelerate to 60 mph in 3.14 seconds and 100 mph in 6.6 seconds. It has six gears not counting the final drive and its top speed has been established at about 355 kilometers per hour.

Various specialty magazines have rated the Ferrari Enzo among the ten greatest Ferraris of all time, yet others, like the Bloomberg Businessweek described it as one of the ugliest cars in the past fifty years due to its superfluous curves and angles and extremely flashy V-shaped hood and scooped-out doors. Nevertheless, this hasn’t stopped Enzo lovers from praising the car and Ferrari has since built several models inspired from the Enzo. One of these variations was the Ferrari Millechilli, which is Italian for one thousand kilograms. The car was to be a lightweight version of the Enzo with features borrowed from Formula One race cars and a V10 engine that would exceed 600 hp.

Ferrari Enzo Pictures Gallery